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Thabo is training for a race by running 20 km every day. Describe how oxygen is taken into her body and how it moves into her blood stream. Also describe how the carbon dioxide produced in her body during training is controlled to maintain normal levels.

Content:(17 marks)
Synthesis: (3marks)
in Biology by Diamond (41,704 points)
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These are the points expected in your essay, make sure you apply relevant and correct terminology(expect maximum of 6,4 and 7 points, not all of them, respectively in the below sections of your essay):

-The diaphragm contracts
- It becomes less rounded  / flat
- The external intercostal muscles contract
- causing the ribcage to move up- and outwards
- The volume of the chest cavity increases
- The volume of the lungs also increases
- The pressure decreases
- Air flows into the lungs

Gaseous exchange of oxygen in the lungs
- There is a high oxygen concentration in the alveoli
- The blood has a low oxygen concentration
- A concentration gradient is created
- Oxygen will move from the alveoli to the bloodstream
- By the process of diffusion

Homeostatic control of carbon dioxide
- Because of exercise the carbon dioxide levels in the blood will increase
- The medulla oblongata will be stimulated
- to send messages to the heart
- breathing muscles
- the heart beats faster
- blood with carbon dioxide is pumped to the lungs faster to be exhaled
- the breathing muscles contract faster
- and the rate and depth of breathing increases
- more carbon dioxide is removed out of the body
- The carbon dioxide levels decrease back to normal
by Diamond (41,704 points)

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